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APPLICATION OF GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY IN MGNREGS

  • Department of Rural Development, Govt. of Gujarat
    Objectives:
    1. Use of GIS and RS for planning and monitoring of MGNREGS works for generation of social capital and employment.
    2. Mapping the area and understanding the demographic profile, economic status of the stakeholders
    3. Usage of the model as a platform for capacity building of the local community, Village/Taluka Panchayat and Project Implementing Agencies (PIA) .
    4. Capturing the existing assets, current coverage of the area and generation of future action plan.
    5. Use of various tools including RS Imagery for monitoring & evaluation.

    Scope

    convergence-of-geospatial-technologies
    Tools to be used
    1. Geographic Information System (GIS)
    2. Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments
    3. Remote Sensing (RS) Imagery
    4. Management Information System (MIS) [NREGASoft]
    5. Participatory Rural Appraisal(PRA) & Focus Group Discussions (FGD)
    6. Social Audit
    Availability of GIS Spatial Layers availability-of-GIS-spatial-layers
    1. Datasets Integrated in GIS
    2. Different Types of Maps can be generated
    various-GIS-spatial-layers
    Why Plan at Micro watershed level
    1. 80% of the MGNREGS works are based on
      1. Natural Resource Management (NRM),
      2. Drought proofing,
      3. Flood control & protection works,
      4. Land development,
      5. Micro & macro irrigation works,
      6. Renovation of traditional water bodies (Desilting)
    2. Absence of holistic & integrated approach leads to inadequate returns on investment
    3. Effective planning at Micro-watershed Level (500-1000 Ha.) would result in the creation of sustainable assets and concrete measurable outcomes at village level.
    gis-for-planning gis-framework
    GIS based planning & monitoring for MGNREGS (A CASE STUDY) About Study area
    1. Low rainfall area (700 mm)
    2. Prone to excessive soil erosion due to ravines and sparse vegetative cover leads to inadequate recharge of ground water and siltation of water harvesting structures.
    3. Low agriculture & milk productivity
    4. Biotic pressure on Gauchar and community land because of non-production of fodder on private land.
    study-area
    Advantages of Mapping
    1. Mapping facilitates better understanding of activities both by the literate and illiterate (major beneficiaries).
    2. Mapping helps deriving a platform for coordination between MGNREGS and other line department for convergence.
    3. The maps (in digital form) can be easily shared between the line departments & other stakeholders which results in better fund flow and aids in monitoring and evaluation.
    nagavasan-micro-watershed
    Action Plan Parameters
    1. Socio-economic parameters
      1. BPL population
      2. SC/ST population
      3. Small/Marginal farmers
      4. Landless
    2. Bio-Physical parameters
      1. Ground water status
      2. Vegetative cover status
      3. Geomorphology of the area
      4. Soil erodability status
    Cropping pattern etc
    1. Asset inventory
    2. Existing water harvesting structures
    3. Community land
    4. Gauchar land
    5. Land holdings by SC/ST
    6. Land holdings by Marginal Farmers
    7. Road connectivity
    8. Gram Panchayat office
    9. Irrigation structures (wells, field channels etc.)
    10. Previous works under NREGS & other schemes
    Measuring Soil Erodibility
    1. A sustainable model which decreases soil erosion, silting and degradation of present water harvesting structures
    2. Use of Soil erosion equation for identifying various parameter
    3. Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)

    Soil Loss = RKLSCP

    Soil erosion was estimated using Universal soil Loss Equation (USLE) (Wischemier, W.H and Smith, D.D, 1978).

    1. K’ is the erodibility factor - depends on soil characteristics (percent of sand, silt, organic matter content. K- Factor map for soil is prepared accordingly.
    2. ‘LS’ is calculated from slope map - mainly dependent on percent slope and slope-length for each category of slope
    3. ‘C’ factor is dependent on crop and the local vegetation. This is mapped from the land use and land cover map
    4. ‘P’ factor is dependent on conservation practices applied or ought to be applied in watershed under NREGA.
    annual-planning-cycle
    Monitoring & Impact Assessment System
    1. Creation of Web based GIS monitoring system at village level using e-Gram facilities with following database.
      1. Type of assets
      2. Use of GPS coordinates for asset created
      3. Land parcel survey numbers.
      4. The volume of work
      5. Cost incurred.
      6. Availability of Labour.
    2. Use of Mobile based software for updating the Geo-spatial database.
    3. Integrating with MGNREGA-MIS system.
    4. Summarised and specialized spatial reports for different hierarchies
    5. Annual satellite images (CARTOSAT Imagery) to assess the outcome.
    6. Monitoring System output will become input data for next annual action plan.
    functional-structure
    Technical Resources
    1. Computer and Printer(At District and Taluka level)
    2. GIS Software
    3. GPS Instrument
    4. Scanner
    5. Digital Camera
    Financial Implications
    1. State Level GIS Unit – Rs. 5 crore (Initial) and Rs. 1 Crore Recurring Cost Per annum.
    2. District Level GIS Unit – Rs. 25 Lakh (Intial) and Rs. 5 Lakh Recurring Cost Per annum
    3. Taluka Level GIS Unit - Rs. 5 Lakh and Rs. 1 Lakh Recurring Cost Per annum
    Capacity Building at village level
    1. Capacity building of Village & Taluka level panchayat employees regarding the use of various GIS map and GPS instruments.
    2. Technical assistance to field engineers/Talati-cum-Mantri for better data collection.
    3. Exposure visit of different stakeholders to best managed projects
    Conclusion
    1. Geographic Information system (GIS) has a vital role as a Decision Support System.
    2. Decentralization of MGNREGS activities and creation & management of asset inventory requires a proper scientific tool.
    3. The scope of GIS as an Information System acts as a solution for reliable, real-time and authentic information.