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Geo Information System

  • 14. SPATIAL ANALYSIS

    GIS is used to perform a variety of Spatial analysis, including overlaying combinations of features and recording resultant conditions, analyzing flows or other characteristics of networks and defining districts in terms of spatial criteria. Its uses in various fields are: facility management, planning, environmental monitoring, population census analysis, insurance assessment, health service provision, hazard mapping and many other applications. Although GIS and AM/FM Systems have similar capabilities, GIS traditionally has refer to systems that emphasize Spatial Analysis and modeling while AM/FM systems management of geographically distributed facilities. A complete GIS or Spatial Information System consists hardware, Software, humanware(i.e. trained experts in GIS).

    A GIS can acquire and store data by import from external sources or by capture from maps and reports. Once in storage the data must be kept backed up, and updated when new information becomes available. Since more than 70% of the cost in GIS Project lies in data capture; the database is the primary asset of a GIS. Spatial data is collected from a variety of sources. Remotely sensed data from satellite is a primary data source. The other information coming from modern survey instruments is also a primary data source as it can be read directly into GIS similar to remote sensing data. Where as the secondary data capture involves processing information which has already been compiled but requires converting into a computer readable format by manual or automatic digitization.

    15. COST IN GIS

    A complete GIS needs hardware, software and expertise. Initially when the GIS hardware and Software entered the market are with limited capabilities and priced at higher cost. However due to competition the rates are reducing and it will follow for certain years. The following figure shows the relative cost with time. Only the cost of spatial data is likely to remain high.

    costingis

    Figure 4. Cost in GIS
    16. APPLICATIONS OF GIS AND REMOTE SENSING
    1. Agricultural development
    2. Land evaluation analysis
    3. Change detection of vegetated areas
    4. Analysis of deforestation and associated environmental hazards
    5. Monitoring vegetation health
    6. Mapping percentage vegetation cover for the management of land Degradation
    7. Crop acreage and production estimation
    8. Wasteland mapping
    9. Soil resources mapping
    10. Groundwater potential mapping
    11. Geological and mineral exploration
    12. Snow-melt run-off forecasting
    13. Monitoring forest fire
    14. Monitoring ocean productivity etc.
    17. TRENDS IN GIS
    1. Natural Resources Management
    2. Telecom GIS
    3. Automated mapping and facility management
    4. Virtual 3-D GIS
    5. Internet GIS
    6. Spatial Multi-media
    7. Open GIS
    8. Object Oriented GIS
    9. Spatial Decision Support System
    10. OLAP & Data Mining etc.
    18. REFERENCES FOR FURTHER READING
    1. “Principles of Geographical Information Systems for Land Resource Assessment” by P. A. Burrough.
    2. “Geographical Information Systems –Principles” Vol.1 by Goodchild.
    3. International Journal of Geographical Information Science.
    4. International Journal of Remote Sensing
    5. Geocarto International
    6. GIS Asia Pacific (magazine)
    7. GIS @ Development (magazine)
    8. GIS India (magazine)